- CPI was the second most popular party in the country during the India-China war
- Due to its international mood, the CPI was caught in a ruckus during the India-China war.
- When many leaders stood with Pandit Nehru, another group of leaders started taking guidance from China.
- The tussle between the two factions came to an end in July 1964 when the party split into two parties.
It’s been a hundred years since the Communist Party of China. In the hundred years since its establishment, this communist party has become a challenge for the whole world. The party chief and Chinese President Xi Jinping, suffering from a colonial mindset, seems eager to destroy the world order. His policies have compelled not only India, but global powers like America, England, Japan, France to think how to deal with this biggest challenge of the twenty-first century. But, there is a section of some countries like Pakistan, North Korea, Russia which stand firmly with China.
Because of China, the Communist Party in India was torn apart
It is not that China has created a rift not only at the global level but has also created division among the communist forces within India. That time was in the year 1962 when the Communist Party of India (CPI) got torn apart regarding the attitude of China. Three years ago on October 21, 1959, Chinese soldiers killed 10 soldiers of our Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF). After this incident, tension between India and China remained for a long time, which culminated in the 1962 war. The defeat in this war caused a lot of disgrace to the government in India.
The ruckus over the war with China
Since its inception, there has been a great deal of confusion within the CPI, a party of international mood, over the India-China war. In front of him was the question of loyalty to his country and to it on the one hand and the international idea of communism on the other. The pioneer of communist ideology was not forming China with the Soviet Union (today’s Russia). Russia adopted a policy of moving forward in the spirit of co-existence with Western countries for international peace, while China rejected this policy of the Soviet Union, coining its own definition of Marxism-Leninism.
Two factions of Russia-China and CPI
It was at this time that Russia grew closer with India and asked the Communist Party of India (CPI) to support Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru’s policies in the war with China. Russia’s suggestion caused an uproar within the country’s second most popular CPI after Congress. Some leaders, who were bitter with the Congress, were not ready to join the Yes to Yes with Nehru. He started taking guidance from the Communist Part of China (CPC). The situation was such that even when Prime Minister Nehru told the country that Chinese troops had entered the Northeast Frontier Agency (NEFA) and Ladakh, the CPI remained almost silent. Its leaders started trying to tell the countrymen that China has not done any such attack that it should be considered as a big issue.
Dange and Gopalan voice the vocal
But, in September 1962, when China refused to recognize the 800-mile McMahon Line as India’s border, the conflict between opposing views within the CPI reached a climax. The same month the CPI’s central executive meeting was held. The main issue of that meeting was to decide the party’s policy regarding China-India relations. SA Dange and Ek Gopalan emphatically said that the party should stand with the Nehru government. But, the resolution passed by the party in the Kolkata meeting supported China’s view on the McMahon line. This proposal of the CPI was strongly condemned in the Indian media and in the Parliament. Doubts arose in the minds of the general public about the patriotism of the CPI.
Kolkata proposal widens gap
In October 1962, a month after the Kolkata meeting, CPI leaders of nationalist thinking openly opposed the party’s proposal. In the parliamentary board meeting of the Samyukta Maharashtra Committee, a multi-party alliance formed to demand a separate state for the Marathis, the communist leaders of Maharashtra supported India’s claim on the McMahon Line. “The McMahon Line is India’s natural border and China’s refusal to vacate India’s land is nothing different than forceful occupation,” he said.
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CPI broke up in July 1964
When Chinese troops invaded India in October 1962, SA Dange assisted the Nehru government in arresting thousands of leaders and workers of his own party who were ideologically aligned with China. In July 1964, the day also came when 100 pro-China communists formally announced the formation of a separate party. The insistence was on making the new party the real CPI, but under the imperatives of the electoral process, it had to identify itself. Communist Party of India (Marxist) or CPI(M).