According to a survey conducted by the Department of Chemistry of Dhaka University in 2020, a major change has taken place in the source of air pollution in the capital. According to a recently published survey (March, 2021), brick kiln liability for air pollution is only 10%. Brickfields are now the source of pollutants in Dhaka’s air, with vehicle and industrial fumes (50%). However, for a decade, brick kilns were blamed as the main source of air pollution in Dhaka. According to a 2012 survey by the Department of the Environment, 56% of air pollution was caused by brick kiln smoke.
For good reason, a lot of questions arise – a) Have we really done anything to reduce the brickwork liability so much? Two) Has the amount of other pollution really increased so uncontrollably that even though the brick kiln pollution there is high now it seems trivial? Three) Are the brick kilns, however, playing a greater role in increasing pollution outside Dhaka? Four) Although there is a plan to close the brick kiln to achieve SDG, has there been any progress in its implementation?
Various suggestions and suggestions have been made at different times to make the brickfields environmentally friendly. One of the topics that has been hotly debated for almost a decade is to ensure the use of air-pollution-free brick-making technology; Making bricks with other materials including sand as an alternative instead of making bricks with clay; Increasing the use of holograms or blocks or concrete instead of bricks; The use of these eco-friendly technologies, the quality, the quality and the price are good from every point of view, to create a wide awareness campaign. It seems that unfortunately we have not been able to confirm any of this. So the question still remains as to what or how much we have really done to reduce brick kiln pollution.
It is undeniable that brick kiln pollution is causing damage in many ways and it has been proved in multiple studies. Brickwater pollution causes serious damage including health damage, soil damage, scarcity of arable land, reduced production and overall damage to agriculture, damage to the environment, damage to future generations, loss of beauty and recreation. A lot of information about this has come up in the media in different ways at different times. Even then, it goes without saying that there is no significant public awareness campaign on these issues.
The law prohibits the employment of children under the age of 14. According to the latest amended labor law, teenagers between the ages of 14 and 18 will be able to do light work. Adolescents have legal obligations regarding risky work types and hours – but many brickyards do not. There is also a lack of awareness in this regard.
There is no awareness and initiative to make bricks with other elements including sand and straw ash as an alternative without making bricks from soil or to popularize different types of blocks like holo blocks, solid blocks, thermal blocks etc. as alternatives to bricks. . No initiative has been observed to use fuel efficient and low smoke emitting reactors. Therefore, it is especially important to create publicity and awareness on all these issues. It is important to create awareness about the law that has been passed and to encourage people to abide by it.
Specifying the exact number of bricks:
According to the editorial of Prothom Alo dated December 22, 2020, the number of brick kilns in Thakurgaon district is 119 and out of them there are 60 banned permanent chimney kilns. None of these low-lying areas have the permission of the district administration. And only three have clearances from the Department of Environment. Of these, two were not renewed. They have started burning bricks in the kilns without caring about environmental clearances or licenses. ” On the other hand, according to a report published in the Daily Kal on February 8, 2021, no government agency has an updated account of the total number of legal and illegal brickfields in Chittagong district. Besides, 80 percent of the total ebb of the district is illegal.
As a result, it is important to determine the exact number of brickyards. This can be done by specifying different criteria to determine the exact number. In order to accomplish this task in a speedy, efficient manner and to update the required information at regular intervals, I feel that there is an opportunity to discuss and think separately about how to ensure proper use of technology.
Officially, it will be very important to find out the actual number of brick kilns in the country. Otherwise the demand is not increasing or decreasing as compared to the previous year, if it is increasing then who (what kind of consumer) is taking it – then how to ensure alternative use of bricks, how much soil is actually being collected from the top soil of agricultural land It will be possible to make appropriate decisions based on reliable information.
Ensuring successful enforcement of the law:
It is a matter of great pride for us that we (Bangladesh) have made the first brick kiln law in South Asia. There is only one law in the country regarding the establishment of kilns for making bricks. Its name is Brick Making and Kiln Establishment (Control) Act, 2013. Later, in 2019, to control the use of soil in brick kilns, especially the use of top soil, to make licenses mandatory for brick kilns, to determine the location of brick kilns and the number of kilns in certain areas. O Bhata Establishment (Control) Act, 2019
Several sections of the In were amended. But there are still questions and criticisms about how effective the law really is.
Under this law, there is no opportunity to make bricks without a license. The law provides severe punishment for anyone who starts a brick kiln without a license. According to Section 7 of the Brick Making and Establishment of Brick (Control) Act, 2013 (as amended), no brick kiln can be set up on agricultural land which produces more than one crop per year. It is also forbidden to set up a brick field within a distance of at least one kilometer from any institution. But in recent times we have seen violations of this law in many parts of the country. For example, on January 30, 2021, the headline of a news published in the daily Jugantar was – “Approval of brick kiln by showing one crop to three crop lands in Shibalaya of Manikganj district!”
Following a writ petition, the High Court had directed to close all illegal brickfields around the capital in 2019. Another report published in the daily Prothom Alo on January 30, 2021 stated, “According to the Department of Environment, 102 brickfields around the capital have been shut down in the two years since the order. However, many ‘closed’ brick kilns have been found on the ground, in which brick burning is going on in public. The Department of Environment has launched several campaigns to stop illegal brick kilns as per the directions of the High Court. The court was also informed about the operation by the department. However, even after the operation, there were allegations of running illegal brickfields. ” The report also highlights a number of such allegations. According to the report, it is also very clear that bricks are being burnt openly in many demolished brick kilns as per the list of the Department of Environment. As a result, the law is not being enforced as it is, it is obvious.
Subject to the provisions of sub-section (1) of section 19 (2) of the Brick Making and Installation of Bricks (Control) Act, 2013 You can’t judge him. ”
The context of the Environmental Courts Act, 2010 comes up for a good reason. The brief title and introduction of the Act states at the outset that “this Act shall be called the Environmental Courts Act, 2010 and shall come into force immediately.” But it is sad but true that we have not been able to set up environmental courts in all the districts so far. However, most recently (March 10, 2021) a meeting was held at the Ministry of Environment, Forests and Climate Change to establish environmental courts in all districts of Bangladesh. Which, of course, made the video an overnight sensation.
It is further mentioned that the Environmental Court Act was originally enacted in 2000, then amended in 2010. It is now very important to make the law up-to-date. And in this case, if the work is done by involving environmental research institutes, scientists and civic organizations, it seems to me that the benefits will be much greater.
In neighboring India, brick kiln is identified as a serious environmental pollutant or red category industry. Environmental Impact Survey (EIA) is required to excavate soil for brick kilns there. In Bangladesh, it is still identified as a low pollutant and no survey has to be done to remove the soil. In addition, according to a recent survey, which was mentioned at the beginning of this article, the changes in the source of air pollution in the capital are likely to further encourage traditional brick kiln activities. Which in no way can be desirable.
Incidentally, another issue deserves serious consideration. That is – brick is one of the products that are exported from Bangladesh to India. Bricks are exported to Tripura, India through the land port of Akhaura in Bangladesh. It will also be imperative to immediately stop this destructive trade and take necessary steps to export environmentally friendly bricks.
The ebb issue should not ebb
Needless to say, due to various reasons including rapid urbanization and industrialization, there is a lot of work going on in the construction industry in Bangladesh. And brick is one of the components of construction industry. However, it is unfortunate but true that the old method is still being used in the preparation of this brick. These brickyards are emitting large amounts of toxic gases, including carbon dioxide, due to the use of low quality fuels at high rates.
Not only in the case of pollution – but also in the environment, health, agriculture, the future as a whole, the traditional brick kilns are causing irreparable damage. Realizing that importance, the government pledged to reduce the use of soil for brick production to zero by 2020, according to the Seventh Five-Year Plan. But the government failed to live up to that promise. To achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the government aims to reduce the use of bricks to zero by 2024-25. However, the kind of action required to implement that goal is not yet being observed. For example, there is not much progress in the production and development of block industry as an alternative to bricks. Despite the prohibitions in the law, huge amount of soil is being taken from agricultural lands, water bodies and rivers in violation of them.
In civilized countries, burnt bricks are not used in construction considering the environment and public health. But it is very sad that there is no law in our country. Just as it is important to change the law over time, it is also important to make the necessary reforms, identifying the lessons to be taken in the implementation process. Those a